CLASSICAL APPROACHES: ANCIENT RHETORIC SOME CLASSICAL RHETORICAL CONCEPTS.
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MAKING SENSE OF MESSAGES: A CRITICAL APPRENTICESHIP IN
MAKING SENSE OF MESSAGES: A CRITICAL APPRENTICESHIP IN RHETORICAL CRITICISM
Mark Stoner California State University, Sacramento Sally Perkins California State University, Sacramento
To my husband, Jim, who has patiently endured this process, and to my children, Kendra and Elliott, whose education I hope will be advanced by this work.
–S.R To my wife, Daria, who has been so patient and supportive, and to my children, Ian and Heather.
First published 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Published 2016 by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN 711 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017, USA
Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business
Copyright © 2005 Taylor & Francis. All rights reserved.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers.
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Credits and acknowledgments borrowed from other sources and reproduced, with permission, in this textbook appear on appropriate page within text.
ISBN 9780205564514 (pbk)
Library of Congress Control Number: 2002109681 ISBN: 0-618-14488-9
TEXT CREDITS: page 145, Excerpt from “A Time for Peace” by
Kendra Creasy. Reprinted by permission of the author; pages 145- 146, from Wil A. Linkugel, R.R. AIJen, and Richard L. Johannesen, eds., Contemporary American Speeches: A Sourcebook of Speech Forms and Principles, 5/e, p. 309. Copyright © 1982. Published by Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company; page 201, “Fantasy and Rhetorical Vision: The Rhetorical Criticism of Social Reality”, by Ernest Bormann, Quarterly Journal of Speech 58, 1972, pp. 396-402. Reprinted by permission of Taylor & Francis Ltd. Visit us at http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals; page 271, “Jewel Tones Return for the Holidays,” by Linda Pliagas from HispanicMagazine.com, December 2002. Reprinted with permission from Hispanic Magazine.
PHOTO CREDITS: page 10, © Center for Creative Freedom; page 30, Courtesy of the National Smokers Alliance; page 43, Courtesy of the National Smokers Alliance; page 185, © Zits Partnership. Reprinted with special permission of King Features Syndicate; page 302, ©Painet, Inc.; page 304, © © Natalie Behring- Chisholm/Stringer/Getty Images; page 305, © University of California, Davis: Information Center for the Environment (ICE); page 305, © Enron; page 307, © Ron English; page 308, © 1999 California Department of Health Services, used with permission; page 309, © Franco Vogt/Corbis; page 310, © Arkidata, Inc.; page 311, e© Sami Sarkis/Getty Images; page 312, © amaritz/iStockPhoto; page 312, © Patti Murray/Animals, Animals/Earth Sciences; page 313, Courtesy of the author; page 314, Courtesy Devito/Verdi, NY. Cover Image: © Garry Gay/The Image Bank/Getty.
PREFACE PART I INTRODUCTION
1 WHAT ARE RHETORICAL MESSAGES? CHARACTERISTICS OF RHETORIC
Rhetoric Typically Addresses Public Audiences Rhetoric is Purposeful Rhetoric Responds to and Creates More or Less Obvious Social Concerns Rhetoric Relies on Verbal and Nonverbal Symbols Rhetoric Shapes the Way People Think, Act, Believe, and Feel
DEFINITION OF RHETORIC RHETORICAL TERMINOLOGY WHY STUDY RHETORICAL MESSAGES? SUMMARY EXERCISES WORKS CITED
2 CRITICISM: WHAT CRITICS DO WITH RHETORICAL MESSAGES REACTION VERSUS CRITIQUE CHARACTERISTICS OF CRITICS
Critics Study Messages Systematically Critics Have a Responsibility to Teach Others
A CRITICAL STANCE: IN THE BALCONY HOW THIS BOOK CAN HELP MESSAGE ANALYSIS MATTERS! SUMMARY EXERCISES WORKS CITED
PART II PROCESS TO PRODUCT
3 FOUR KINDS OF CRITICAL THINKING CREATIVE AND CRITICAL THINKING THE PROCESS OF CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF MESSAGES
Description Analysis Interpretation Evaluation
SUMMARY EXERCISES NOTES WORKS CITED
4 THE PROCESS OF DESCRIPTION APPROACHES TO DESCRIBING A TEXT
Planned Survey Questions
RECORDING YOUR THINKING APPROACHES TO DESCRIBING CONTEXT
Specific Circumstances Similar Circumstances or Similar Messages Rhetor and Audience
CONDUCTING RELEVANT RESEARCH TEXT-CONTEXT INTERACTION
Conformity Non-Participation Desecration Contextual Reconstruction
APPLICATIONS OF TEXT-CONTEXT INTERACTIONS SUMMARY EXERCISES NOTES WORKS CITED
5 THE PROCESS OF ANALYSIS NAMING THE PARTS OF THE MESSAGE
Using Search Models Using General Knowledge Recording Your Thinking
LOOKING FOR RHETORICAL PATTERNS Patterns of Repetition Patterns of Sequencing Patterns of Omission Anomalies to Patterns Patterns of Relationships
SAMPLE ANALYSIS DERIVING QUESTIONS FROM THE ANALYSIS SUMMARY EXERCISES NOTES WORKS CITED
6 THE PROCESS OF INTERPRETATION CHARACTERISTICS OF INTERPRETATION
Creative Thinking Process Subjective Thinking Process Making Inferences
HOW DOES A CRITIC DEVELOP AN INTERPRETATION? Asking Questions from Analysis Comparing Observations from Analysis
SUMMARY EXERCISES WORKS CITED
7 THE PROCESS OF EVALUATION TYPES OF JUDGMENTS
Truthfulness Quality of Evidence and Reasoning Effectiveness Ethics and Values
SELECTING A TYPE OF JUDGMENT SAMPLE EVALUATION SUMMARY EXERCISES WORKS CITED
8 WRITING YOUR IDEAS EFFECTIVELY ARGUING YOUR CLAIMS ABOUT MESSAGES
Present New Ideas Make an Argument Support Your Thesis Logically Organize Ideas Write Well
DOCUMENTING YOUR SOURCES MLA Style APA Style
SUMMARY EXERCISES NOTES WORKS CITED PART III ANALYTICAL TOOLS PREFACE TO CHAPTERS 9–10 CLASSICAL APPROACHES
9 CLASSICAL APPROACHES: ANCIENT RHETORIC SOME CLASSICAL RHETORICAL CONCEPTS
Style Arrangement Delivery Memory Invention
THE CLASSICAL MODEL APPLIED SUMMARY EXERCISES NOTES WORKS CITED SUGGESTED READINGS
10 CLASSICAL APPROACHES: NEW RHETORIC TOULMIN AND EVERYDAY ARGUMENT
Argument Fields Field Invariant and Field Dependent Elements of Arguments Modal Terms Force and Criteria The Parts of Arguments
PERELMAN AND THE NEW RHETORIC Reasonableness and Audiences The Universal Audience Means of Forming Good Opinions Creating Presence Using Argument Structures
THE NEW RHETORIC APPLIED SUMMARY EXERCISES NOTES WORKS CITED SUGGESTED READINGS
PREFACE TO CHAPTERS 11–13 DRAMATISTIC APPROACHES
11 THE NARRATIVE PARADIGM SOME VOCABULARY OF THE NARRATIVE PARADIGM
Narrative Elements NARRATIVE PARADIGM APPLIED TWO CONCEPTS—FOUR CONCERNS
Gettysburg Address and Probability Gettysburg Address and Fidelity
NARRATIVE APPLIED TO WWF SMACKDOWN! SUMMARY EXERCISES WORKS CITED SUGGESTED READINGS
12 FANTASY THEME ANALYSIS FANTASY THEME ANALYSIS CONTRASTED WITH NARRATIVE SOME BASIC CONCEPTS OF FANTASY THEME ANALYSIS THE PROCESS OF FANTASY THEME ANALYSIS FANTASY THEME APPLIED: GETTYSBURG ADDRESS
Context Described Theory Applied Speech Analysis
THE FANTASY THEMES OF WWF SMACKDOWN! Interpreting Themes
SUMMARY EXERCISES NOTES WORKS CITED SUGGESTED
13 BURKEIAN ANALYSIS THE NEGATIVE AND HUMAN SPEECH
The Negative and Creation of Categories The Negative and Moral Order Identification and Persuasion Hierarchy, Guilt, and Meaning Victimage and Salvation
THE PENTAD TWO EXAMPLES OF THE PENTAD APPLIED USING PENTADIC RATIOS DISCOVERING MOTIVES BURKEIAN CONCEPTS APPLIED TO WWF SMACKDOWN!
Description Analysis Interpretation
SUMMARY EXERCISES NOTES WORKS CITED SUGGESTED READINGS
PREFACE TO CHAPTERS 14–16 SOCIOPOLITICAL APPROACHES
14 IDEOLOGICAL APPROACHES CRITICAL THEORY HEGEMONY AND MARGINALIZATION LEGITIMATION NATURALIZATION IDEOLOGICAL CONCEPTS APPLIED TO BEAUTY AND THE BEAST AND SHREK SUMMARY EXERCISES NOTES WORKS CITED SUGGESTED READINGS
15 FEMINIST APPROACHES LIBERAL FEMINISM CULTURAL FEMINISM POSTMODERN FEMINISM FEMINIST CONCEPTS APPLIED TO BEAUTY AND THE BEAST AND SHREK SUMMARY EXERCISES NOTES WORKS CITED SUGGESTED READINGS
16 POSTMODERN APPROACHES DECONSTRUCTION
Signs, Signifiers, and the Signified The Absence of Referential Truth Binary Oppositions
IDEOGRAPHS DISCURSIVE FORMATIONS USING THE POSTMODERN APPROACHES POSTMODERN CONCEPTS APPLIED TO “AMERICA” SUMMARY EXERCISES NOTES WORKS CITED SUGGESTED READINGS
17 VISUAL COMMUNICATION VISUAL MESSAGES AND ARGUMENT THE NATURE OF VISUAL MESSAGES
Three Basic Concepts SEMANTICS AND VISUAL COMMUNICATION FUNCTIONS OF VISUALS IN PERSUASION
Violating Reality Visual Metaphor Parody Point of View
AN APPLICATION EXPANDING THE ANALYSIS SUMMARY EXERCISES NOTES WORKS CITED SUGGESTED READINGS
APPENDIX 1: SAMPLE ANALYSIS OF “SHE’S LEAVING HOME”
APPENDIX 2: SAMPLE STUDENT PAPER BARBARA JORDAN’S KEYNOTE ADDRESS AT THE 1992 DEMOCRATIC NATIONAL CONVENTION: A NEUTRAL APPROACH TO A PARTISAN TASK
APPENDIX 3: SAMPLE STUDENT ESSAY A RESPONSE TO THE DEATH OF A PRINCESS: THE FORM AND FUNCTION OF A EULOGY INDEX